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London: Routledge. Buell, Lawrence. Blackwell Manifestos. Thus, it has the potential to act as a consumer socializing agent especially for teenaged viewers. Music television has also influenced advertising in several ways. Music videos are highly impactful and emotionally arousing; they provide a new viewing context within which consumers are exposed to advertising.
In addition, television commercials have in some instances adopted structural and executional elements from music television. Thus the recent development and enormous popularity of music television has the potential to influence consumers via its power to shape consumer culture and also through its influence on commercial structure and positioning. The music television cable network MTV was launched in the summer of , and brought music videos to the cable television audience. MTV has rocked audiences ever since. The station was created when Robert Pittman, now executive vice president and chief operating officer of MTV Networks, came up with the idea of putting music videos on cable TV.
Music videos had already existed; they were primarily used as promotional tools for the sale of albums. Today, nine years later, music videos have evolved into an art form, selling more than just the music. As a result, MTV has become an increasingly attractive medium for advertisers, especially those trying to reach the elusive teenage audience. MTV targets audiences between the ages of twelve and thirty-four, with a median age of twenty-three; an age group which has proven highly elusive for other media.
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Although music videos originated as promotional tools for record albums, the videos themselves present the viewer with far more than music: they provide information about fashion and cosmetics, lifestyles, and social roles and behavior. The purpose of this session was to present recent work concerning the influences of music television on the manner in which consumption messages are transmitted to and received by consumers. Because of the potential power of music television to reach young consumers, and thereby socialize consumption behavior, it is a medium that demands more research attention.
The issues currently being studied by consumer researchers include the structural properties of music television, the consumption messages embedded in music videos, the effects of music video elements in advertising, and the properties of music television as a viewing context. On the surface, music videos are a means for marketing music e. Indeed, it is widely noted in the industry that a top hit in mainstream popular music is now unlikely without a music video as part of the promotional mix e.
It is not surprising therefore that producers of music videos would initially borrow elements of executional style from television advertising e.
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Indeed, Pry and Fry show that music videos are structurally very similar to television advertising, and that they also are related to televised drama. Their analysis suggests that music videos are a hybrid of the two forms; not a "hard sell" as one might expect from television advertising and yet not a linear unfolding of a story line as one might expect from a typical television drama. This hybridization of form and content has blurred the boundary between the program and the commercial message.
Although the hybridization of styles may in part be due to the intentional borrowing of form early in the history of MTV, the crossover of style may have also been due the sharing of creative personnel between advertising, hollywood, and music television Pendleton It clearly was an approach that worked to the extent that music videos have themselves affected the structure of television commercials e.
In addition to the crossover of production personnel the stars of music videos are often featured in commercials that run on the network. For example, Michael Jackson's and Madonna's soda commercials and Paul McCartney's ads for the Visa credit card all appeared on the network along with current videos by these stars. The close relationship between the production of advertising and music videos is also exemplified by a Louise Mandrell video, which was financed by RC Cola in return for scenes of Louise sipping the product in the video. Often both the structure and star of the television commercials seen on MTV are very similar to the videos.
The viewer has a virtually seamless transition between intentional and unintentional consumption messages. Music television may function to socialize consumer behavior. The research conducted by Brown and her colleagues Brown and Campbell , Brown, Campbell and Fischer suggests that socialization of adolescent sexuality may be influenced by music television.
The development of sexual identity has many components, several of which involve consumption. For example, young teenagers are highly motivated to acquire a "personal style": individual and yet acceptable to the peer group. Elements of personal style include clothing and fashion, make-up and hair styling, as well as patterns of values and behavior.